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Due to the direct interaction of structural deformation and the surrounding soil, Exponent’s continuous deformation theory model (CDT) is best suited to allow for accurate calculation and safety assessment of either new or existing tunnels. Since the 1990’s, Exponent (formerly known as FAILURE ANALYSIS ASSOCIATES) has developed suitable software solutions for a renowned German construction firm in this industry area:


  • Crack-width oriented reinforced concrete calculation using the continuous deformation theory (CDT) with Exponent’s own software developments and implementations in commercial FE software
  • Stiffness oriented close-to-reality internal forces calculation
  • Consideration of actual constraint effects of temperature, shrinkage , etc.
  • Close-to-reality deformation analysis in reinforced concrete construction
  • Interaction with surrounding soils
  • Free cross-sectional geometries
  • Optimization of reinforcement amount and layout